A multidisciplinary lifestyle program for metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis: the “Plants for Joints” randomized controlled trial

Wendy Walrabenstein, Carlijn A. Wagenaar, Marieke van de Put, Marike van der Leeden, Martijn Gerritsen, Jos W.R. Twisk, Martin van der Esch, Henriët van Middendorp, Peter J.M. Weijs, Leo D. Roorda, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg

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Abstract

Objective

To determine the effectiveness of the “Plants for Joints” multidisciplinary lifestyle program in patients with metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis (MSOA).

Design

Patients with hip or knee MSOA were randomized to the intervention or control group. The intervention group followed a 16-week program in addition to usual care based on a whole food plant-based diet, physical activity, and stress management. The control group received usual care. The patient-reported Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score (range 0–96) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included other patient-reported, anthropometric, and metabolic measures. An intention-to-treat analysis with a linear-mixed model adjusted for baseline values was used to analyze between-group differences.

Results

Of the 66 people randomized, 64 completed the study. Participants (84% female) had a mean (SD) age of 63 (6) years and body mass index of 33 (5) kg/m2. After 16 weeks, the intervention group (n = 32) had a mean 11-point larger improvement in WOMAC-score (95% CI 6–16; p = 0.0001) compared to the control group. The intervention group also lost more weight (–5 kg), fat mass (–4 kg), and waist circumference (–6 cm) compared to the control group. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue, pain interference, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoproteins improved in the intervention versus the control group, while other PROMIS measures, blood pressure, high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides did not differ significantly between the groups.

Conclusion

The “Plants for Joints” lifestyle program reduced stiffness, relieved pain, and improved physical function in people with hip or knee MSOA compared to usual care.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1491-1500
JournalOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
Volume31
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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