Bread or games?

M. De Nooij, M. Van den Berg, C. Koopmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional


Many countries compete fiercely for the right to host mega-events like the World Cup. Proponents of hosting mega-events claim that yields economic gains. Many available studies focus on partial effects of hosting or concern ex post analyses. The authors utilize the existing literature to perform a detailed cost–benefit analysis (CBA) of the Netherlands bidding jointly with Belgium for the 2018 World Cup. The authors show that national pride and pleasure come at a price and financial gains are unlikely. Based on this CBA, the authors predict that the costs of the 2018 World Cup in Russia will also exceed the financial benefits.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-545
JournalJournal of sports economics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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