Clinical practice: evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin

Maria Fiorella Contarino, Joost Van den Dool, Yacov Balash, Kailash Bhatia, Nir Giladi, Johannes H. Koelman, Annemette Lokkegaard, Maria J. Marti, Miranda Postma, Maja Relja, Matej Skorvanek, Johannes D. Speelman, Evelien Zoons, Joaquim J. Ferreira, Marie Vidailhet, Alberto Albanese, Marina A. J. Tijssen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)
165 Downloads (Pure)


Cervical dystonia is the most frequent form of focal dystonia. Symptoms often result in pain and functional disability. Local injections of botulinum neurotoxin are currently the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia. Although this treatment has proven effective and is widely applied worldwide, many issues still remain open in the clinical practice. We performed a systematic review of the literature on botulinum toxin treatment for cervical dystonia based on a question-oriented approach, with the aim to provide practical recommendations for the treating clinicians. Key-questions from the clinical practice were explored. Results suggest that while the beneficial effect of botulinum toxin treatment on different aspects of cervical dystonia is well established, robust evidence is still missing concerning some practical aspects, such as dose
equivalence between different formulations, optimal treatment intervals, treatment approaches, and the use of supportive techniques including electromyography (EMG) or ultrasounds. Established strategies to prevent or manage common side effects (including excessive muscle weakness, pain at injection site, dysphagia) and potential contraindications to this treatment (pregnancy and lactation, use of anticoagulants, neurological comorbidities) should also be further explored.
Original languageEnglish
Article number35
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2017


Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical practice: evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this