BACKGROUND: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), improvement of lifestyle-related risk factors (LRFs) reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, modification of LRFs is highly challenging.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the impact of combining community-based lifestyle programs with regular hospital-based secondary prevention.
METHODS: The authors performed a randomized controlled trial of nurse-coordinated referral of patients and their partners to 3 widely available community-based lifestyle programs, in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome and/or revascularization, with ≥1 LRF (body mass index >27 kg/m(2), self-reported physical inactivity, and/or smoking) were included. All patients received guideline-based usual care. The intervention was based on 3 lifestyle programs for weight reduction, increasing physical activity, and smoking cessation. The primary outcome was the proportion of success at 12 months, defined as improvement in ≥1 qualifying LRF using weight (≥5% reduction), 6-min-walking distance (≥10% improvement), and urinary cotinine (200 ng/ml detection limit) without deterioration in the other 2.
RESULTS: The authors randomized 824 patients. Complete data on the primary outcome were available in 711 patients. The proportion of successful patients in the intervention group was 37% (133 of 360) compared with 26% (91 of 351) in the control group (p = 0.002; risk ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 1.78). In the intervention group, partner participation was associated with a significantly greater success rate (46% vs. 34%; p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with coronary artery disease, nurse-coordinated referral to a comprehensive set of community-based, widely available lifestyle interventions, with optional partner participation, leads to significant improvements in LRFs. (RESPONSE-2: Randomised Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Outpatient Nurse SpEcialists 2; NTR3937).