An important step towards improving performance while reducing weight and maintenance needs is the integration of composite materials into mechanical and aerospace engineering. This subject explores the many aspects of composite application, from basic material characterization to state-of-the-art advances in manufacturing and design processes. The major goal is to present the most recent developments in composite science and technology while highlighting their critical significance in the industrial sector—most notably in the wind energy, automotive, aerospace, and marine domains. The foundation of this investigation is material characterization, which offers insights into the mechanical, chemical, and physical characteristics that determine composite performance. The papers in this collection discuss the difficulties of gaining an in-depth understanding of composites, which is necessary to maximize their overall performance and design. The collection of articles within this topic addresses the challenges of achieving a profound understanding of composites, which is essential for optimizing design and overall functionality. This includes the application of complicated material modeling together with cutting-edge simulation tools that integrate multiscale methods and multiphysics, the creation of novel characterization techniques, and the integration of nanotechnology and additive manufacturing. This topic offers a detailed overview of the current state and future directions of composite research, covering experimental studies, theoretical evaluations, and numerical simulations. This subject provides a platform for interdisciplinary cooperation and creativity in everything from the processing and testing of innovative composite structures to the inspection and repair procedures. In order to support the development of more effective, durable, and sustainable materials for the mechanical and aerospace engineering industries, we seek to promote a greater understanding of composites.