Paediatric rehabilitation as a discipline is rapidly changing, especially during the last decades. In the past, paediatric rehabilitation was characterized by merely adult intervention strategies in a miniaturized form, delivered by a merely adult patients-oriented profession. Theories on childhood development, however, changed, as did the focus of interventions: from impairments to function, from the child itself to family, community and peers. The call for outcome-oriented and evidence-based medicine lastly, changed paediatric rehabilitation into a mature paediatric profession with it's own scientific framework. This is reflected among other things in the increasing number of paediatric measures and instruments specifically geared to the paediatric rehabilitation profession, for example the Gross Motor Function Measure, Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Movement ABC. More recently, paediatric exercise physiologists are pointing to the benefits of an active lifestyle and training for patients with chronic diseases and disabilities. Several studies have evaluated the effects of such training programmes and came up with positive results. It shows that paediatric rehabilitation continues to develop as a dynamic profession, having growth, childhood development and childhood activities as it's core business.