Determinants of pain and activity limitations in foot osteoarthritis: An exploratory cross-sectional study in the Amsterdam-foot cohort

V.F.M. Ryman, M. van der Esch, J. Dekker, L.D. Roorda, J. van Dieën, J.W.R. Twisk, S.K. Verberne, E. Huijbrechts, W.F. Lems, M. van der Leeden

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Abstract

Objectives
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the foot-ankle complex is understudied. Understanding determinants of pain and activity limitations is necessary to improve management of foot OA. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic, foot-specific and comorbidity-related factors associated with pain and activity limitations in patients with foot OA.

Methods
This exploratory cross-sectional study included 75 patients with OA of the foot and/or ankle joints. Demographic and clinical data were collected with questionnaires and by clinical examination. The outcome variables of pain and activity limitations were measured using the Foot Function Index (FFI). Potential determinants were categorized into demographic factors (e.g., age, sex), foot-specific factors (e.g., plantar pressure and gait parameters), and comorbidity-related factors (e.g., type and amount of comorbid diseases). Multivariable regression analyses with backward selection (p-out≥0.05) were performed in two steps, leading to a final model.

Results
Of all potential determinants, nine factors were selected in the first step. Five of these factors were retained in the second step (final model): female sex, pain located in the hindfoot, higher body mass index (BMI), neurological comorbidity, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score were positively associated with the FFI score. The explained variance (R2) for the final model was 0.580 (adjusted R2 ​= ​0.549).

Conclusion
Female sex, pain located in the hindfoot, higher BMI, neurological comorbidity and greater psychological distress were independently associated with a higher level of foot-related pain and activity limitations. By addressing these factors in the management of foot OA, pain and activity limitations may be reduced.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100134
Pages (from-to)1-6
JournalOsteoarthritis and Cartilage Open
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

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