Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for death in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) for respiratory support. Previous reports suggested higher mortality in COPD patients with COVID-19. It is yet unknown whether patients with COPD were treated differently compared to non-COPD patients. We compared the ventilation management and outcomes of invasive ventilation for COVID-19 in COPD patients versus non-COPD patients. This was a post hoc analysis of a nation-wide, observational study in the Netherlands. COPD patients were compared to non-COPD patients with respect to key ventilation parameters. The secondary endpoints included adjunctive treatments for refractory hypoxemia, and 28-day mortality. Of a total of 1090 patients, 88 (8.1%) were classified as having COPD. The ventilation parameters were not different between COPD patients and non-COPD patients, except for FiO2, which was higher in COPD patients. Prone positioning was applied more often in COPD patients. COPD patients had higher 28-day mortality than non-COPD patients. COPD had an independent association with 28-day mortality. In this cohort of patients who received invasive ventilation for COVID-19, only FiO2 settings and the use of prone positioning were different between COPD patients and non-COPD patients. COPD patients had higher mortality than non-COPD patients.