Fat mass and muscle mass show opposite relationships with physical performance in older obese type 2 diabetes patients: baseline data PROBE trial

R.G. Memelink, T.P.G. ten Haaf, S.E. van der Plas, W Pasman, S Wopereis, A Bongers, J de Vogel, P.J.M. Weijs

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Abstract

Background & aims: Evidence on the relationship between physical performance and body composition is inconsistent. We were interested in this (cross-sectional) relationship within the older obese type 2 diabetes patients participating in a lifestyle program and protein supplementation trial (PROBE).

Objectives: Evaluate to what extent physical performance is related to body composition at baseline in older obese type 2 diabetes patients.

Material & methods: Baseline data of 60 obese older adults (age 66.2±5.5 years and BMI 33.3±5.0 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (HbA1c >43 mmol/l) and not using insulin, were included in the analysis. We measured fat mass [FM], and percentage [FM%], lean mass [LM], and percentage [LM%], appendicular skeletal muscle mass [ASM], and arm [AMM] and leg muscle mass [LMM] using whole body DXA scan. Physical performance parameters were isometric handgrip strength [HG], 10-RM leg press [LP], knee extension power [KEP], steep ramp cycle ergometry maximal power [Wmax], 4m usual gait speed [GS], and 5x chair stand [5CS]. Stepwise linear regression analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship between physical performance and body composition, including adjustment for sex and age. Only significant beta values were reported.

Results: HG was negatively (-0.609) related to FM% and positively (+2.62) related to AMM (R²=0.616). LP was related to FM% (-2,35) and LM (+1.656) (R²=0.365, including age). KEP was related to FM% (-14.24) and ASM (+15.32) (R²=0.726, including age and sex). Wmax was related to FM% (-6.72) and LM (+4.30) (R²= 0.737, including sex). GS (-0.009;R²=0.159) and 5CS (+0.137; R²=0.230) were related to FM; but not with muscle mass indices.

Conclusion: Physical performance appears to be negatively related to fat mass indices as well as positively related to muscle mass indices in older obese type 2 diabetes patients. This finding is in support of weight loss targeting fat reduction as well as muscle preservation in this vulnerable group.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEOS 2016 Programme Book
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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