This systematic review summarizes the psychometric properties of goal-setting instruments that are applied within geriatric rehabilitation. PubMed Medline and Embase were systematically searched for eligible articles. Studies were included if they were conducted in a somatic or neurological rehabilitation setting, included patients aged ≥55 years and provided data on instruments’ psychometric properties (validity, reliability, responsiveness), utility and/or feasibility. Eleven studies were included. Seven studies, all conducted by one research group, evaluated Goal-Attainment Scaling (GAS), two studies assessed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and one study the Self-Identified Goals Assessment (SIGA), which is based on the COPM. One study assessed a core set of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. High concurrent, content and predictive validity and inter-rater reliability were found for GAS. Responsiveness appears to be excellent. Concurrent validity and inter-rater reliability of the COPM and content validity of both the COPM and SIGA appear to be good. Responsiveness of both instruments seems to be poor. Content validity of the ICF core set was found to be fair; responsiveness appears to be very poor. There is little published data on goal-setting instruments in geriatric rehabilitation. Evidence for its psychometric properties may support GAS as goal-setting instrument and additional outcome measure. However, more research is required in order to evaluate GAS, as research conducted in other health care settings may provide important additional findings. Before the COPM (or SIGA) can be recommended as goal-setting instrument, its psychometric properties require further research.