Minerals and Sarcopenia in Older Adults: An Updated Systematic Review

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Abstract

Objective

This systematic review aims to reevaluate the role of minerals on muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

Design

Systematic review.

Setting and Participants

In March 2022, a systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences using predefined search terms. Original studies on dietary mineral intake or mineral serum blood concentrations on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance or the prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults (average age ≥65 years) were included.

Methods

Eligibility screening and data extraction was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Quality assessment was performed with the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies-of Exposure (ROBINS-E) tool.

Results

From the 15,622 identified articles, a total of 45 studies were included in the review, mainly being cross-sectional and observational studies. Moderate quality of evidence showed that selenium (n = 8) and magnesium (n = 7) were significantly associated with muscle mass, strength, and physical performance as well as the prevalence of sarcopenia. For calcium and zinc, no association could be found. For potassium, iron, sodium, and phosphorus, the association with sarcopenic outcomes remains unclear as not enough studies could be included or were nonconclusive (low quality of evidence).

Conclusions and Implications

This systematic review shows a potential role for selenium and magnesium on the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia in older adults. More randomized controlled trials are warranted to determine the impact of minerals on sarcopenia in older adults.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1163-1172
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Volume24
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

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