(1) Background: Recent research showed that subtypes of patients with type 2 diabetes may differ in response to lifestyle interventions based on their organ-specific insulin resistance (IR). (2) Methods: 123 Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized into 13-week lifestyle intervention, receiving either an enriched protein drink (protein+) or an isocaloric control drink (control). Before and after the intervention, anthropometrical and physiological data was collected. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to calculate indices representing organ insulin resistance (muscle, liver, and adipose tissue) and β-cell functioning. In 82 study-compliant subjects (per-protocol), we retrospectively examined the intervention effect in patients with muscle IR (MIR, n = 42) and without MIR (no-MIR, n = 40). (3) Results: Only in patients from the MIR subgroup that received protein+ drink, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, whole body, liver and adipose IR, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass improved versus control. Lifestyle intervention improved body weight and fat mass in both subgroups. Furthermore, for the MIR subgroup decreased systolic blood pressure and increased VO2peak and for the no-MIR subgroup, a decreased 2-h glucose concentration was found. (4) Conclusions: Enriched protein drink during combined lifestyle intervention seems to be especially effective on increasing muscle mass and improving insulin resistance in obese older, type 2 diabetes patients with muscle IR.