After-school care has experienced explosive growth in several countries since this century. Our current knowledge of the pedagogical quality of this type of childcare is very limited. This study describes two interrelated Dutch studies: a survey related to the various criteria for the pedagogical quality of after-school care (N = 501) and the results of the first assessment of the pedagogical quality of after-school care in a nationally representative sample (N = 110 groups, 185 caregivers). The pedagogical quality was predominantly satisfactory to good for emotional support by staff, indoor and outdoor space, and organization, but there were also weaknesses with regard to explicit stimulation of children's development. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of the goals of after-school care from the perspectives of children, parents and professionals.