Prevalence of responsible research practices among academics in The Netherlands [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

Gowri Gopalakrishna, Jelte M. Wicherts, Gerko Vink, Ineke Stoop, Olmo R. van den Akker, Gerben ter Riet, Lex M. Bouter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
87 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Traditionally, research integrity studies have focused on research misbehaviors and their explanations. Over time, attention has shifted towards preventing questionable research practices and promoting responsible ones. However, data on the prevalence of responsible research practices, especially open methods, open codes and open data and their underlying associative factors, remains scarce.
Methods: We conducted a web-based anonymized questionnaire, targeting all academic researchers working at or affiliated to a university or university medical center in The Netherlands, to investigate the prevalence and potential explanatory factors of 11 responsible research practices.
Results: A total of 6,813 academics completed the survey, the results of which show that prevalence of responsible practices differs substantially across disciplines and ranks, with 99 percent avoiding plagiarism in their work but less than 50 percent pre-registering a research protocol. Arts and humanities scholars as well as PhD candidates and junior researchers engaged less often in responsible research practices. Publication pressure negatively affected responsible practices, while mentoring, scientific norms subscription and funding pressure stimulated them.
Conclusions: Understanding the prevalence of responsible research practices across disciplines and ranks, as well as their associated explanatory factors, can help to systematically address disciplinary- and academic rank-specific obstacles, and thereby facilitate responsible conduct of research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number471
Number of pages34
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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