While the beneficial effects of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are undisputed, implementation remains challenging. A gap between guideline-mandated risk factor targets and clinical reality was documented as early as the 1990s. To address this issue, research groups in the Netherlands have performed several major projects. These projects address innovative, multidisciplinary strategies to improve medication adherence and to stimulate healthy lifestyles, both in the setting of cardiac rehabilitation and at dedicated outpatient clinics. The findings of these projects have led to changes in prevention and rehabilitation guidelines.